By Holger Gzella
Aramaic is a continuing thread working in the course of the a variety of civilizations of the close to East, historic and smooth, from a thousand BCE to the current, and has been the language of small principalities, global empires, and a good percentage of the Jewish-Christian culture. Holger Gzella describes its cultural and linguistic heritage as a continual evolution from its beginnings to the arrival of Islam. For the 1st time the person levels of the language, their socio-historical underpinnings, and the textual resources are mentioned comprehensively in gentle of the most recent linguistic and historic study and with considerable awareness to scribal traditions, multilingualism, and language as a marker of cultural self-awareness. Many new observations on Aramaic are thereby built-in right into a coherent ancient framework.
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Additional resources for A Cultural History of Aramaic: From the Beginnings to the Advent of Islam (Handbook of Oriental Studies, Volume 111)
Gzella 2011b: 578 and 583 for simpler and more plausible explanations). e. may point to a loss of case inflection (see Gzella 2013f: 176–182). Cf. Gzella 2013e. The typologically more frequent use of the indirect object marker for highlighting a direct object becomes common in Achaemenid Official Aramaic and later Eastern Aramaic, whereas Western Aramaic and Samʾalian each have specific particles. Vestiges may occur in formulaic expressions in early Old Aramaic, cf. 46. 28 chapter 1 masc. emph.
71 Yet the basic-stem active participle and the entire D-stem of most verbs inflect like sound roots. Some verbs, however, have a L(engthening)-stem with a long vowel in the first syllable and reduplication of the second consonantal radical instead. There are some overlaps between geminate and hollow roots. Verbs with a root-final long vowel /ī/ preserve that vowel in all “perfect” and imperative forms (resulting in /ay/ with /-ī/ and /aw/ with /-ū/ of the respective afformatives), but shift it to /ɛ̄/ in all “imperfect” and participle forms as 71 Cf.
64. 30 chapter 1 3 masc. sg. 3 fem. sg. 2 masc. sg. 2 fem. sg. /fem. sg. 3 masc. pl. 3 fem. pl. 2 masc. pl. 2 fem. pl. /fem. pl. /dual) (“singular suffixes”) /-eh/ /-ah/ /-ákā/ /-ékī/ /-ī/ /-ohūm/ /-ehenn/63 /-okūm/ /-ekenn/ /-ánā/ (“plural suffixes”) /-áw-hī/62 /-áy-hā/ /-áy-kā/ /-áy-kī/ /-ayy/ /-ay-hūm/ /-ay-henn/ /-ay-kūm/ /-ay-kenn/ /-áy-nā/ Finite verbs express the intersecting semantic notions of tense, aspect, and modality: tense refers to the location of an event or a state in time in relation to some reference point; aspect denotes the “internal” viewpoint of a situation as completed (“perfective”) or in progress (“imperfective”) regardless of its location on the time line; and modality covers nuances of possibility, obligation, or doubt.