By Heidi Anna Johnson
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Additional resources for A Grammar of San Miguel Chimalapa Zoque
In some cases this contraction may have occurred at an earlier stage of the language, but it also remains as an ongoing process. 1) is of a word with regular, penultimate stress, which is predictable and therefore not marked. Example (ii) is a Spanish loan word borrowed with the original stress intact. Example (iii) is a MIG Zoque word, whose irregular final stress developed at an earlier stage of the language. In example (iv), the measure suffix -na@N carries its own stress. 3). 8 to yield a single, stressed, syllable1.
Sánchez objected to this word as being just Spanish again, and offered us a Zoque word: wakas&. This is clearly the Spanish vacas (note the plural ending), which was doubtless borrowed long before the reach of even Sr. Sánchez's capacious memory, and completely converted to Zoque phonology. Note that both words can be used as either singular or plural forms, whereas in Spanish ganado is a mass noun - 'cattle' - and vaca is a count noun - 'cow'. 23 Johnson / A Grammar of San Miguel Chimalapa Zoque Chapter 2 These examples illustrate two effects of borrowing at the phonological and morphological levels.
This chapter includes discussion of verbal arguments, agreement, word order, predicate and existential clauses. The valency-changing suffixes and their effects on argument structure are also discussed here. Dependent verb constructions, including verb stem compounding, are described in chapter 8. The structure of a noun phrase is presented in chapter 9; this includes discussion of quantifiers and definiteness. Noun incorporation is described in chapter 10. Multi-clause expressions, including relative clauses, coordination, and subordinated clauses, are discussed in chapter 11.