The History of Medical Informatics in the United States by Morris F. Collen

By Morris F. Collen

This is a meticulously exact chronological checklist of important occasions within the background of clinical informatics and their influence on direct sufferer care and medical study, supplying a consultant sampling of released contributions to the sector.

The historical past of clinical Informatics within the United States has been restructured inside this re-creation, reflecting the transformation clinical informatics has passed through within the years for the reason that 1990. The platforms that have been as soon as solely institutionally pushed – health facility, multihospital, and outpatient details platforms – are this present day joined through platforms which are pushed through medical subspecialties, nursing, pathology, scientific laboratory, pharmacy, imaging, and extra. on the center is the individual – now not the clinician, now not the establishment – whose overall healthiness these types of platforms are designed to serve.

A staff of world-renowned authors have joined forces with Dr Marion Ball to carry Dr Collen’s excellent paintings to press. those well-known leaders in scientific informatics, lots of whom are recipients of the Morris F. Collen Award in scientific Informatics and have been neighbors of or mentored via Dr Collen, conscientiously reviewed, modifying and updating his draft chapters. This has ended in the main thorough background of the topic that you can imagine, and likewise offers readers with a roadmap for the topic good into later within the century.

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Kulikowski incorporated some read only memory (ROM) with its 8-bit microprocessor chips [261]. Further development in the 1970s led to large scale integration with tens of thousands of transistors on each chip. In 1975 Intel’s 8080 microprocessor was the basis for the Altair 8800 that became the first commercial personal computer. The Intel 2008, an 8-bit microprocessor, required 50–60 additional integrated circuits to configure it into a minimum system; at that date it sold for $120. 06 million instructions per second (MIPS).

Intel also introduced semiconductor random access memory (RAM) chips that soon replaced magnetic core memory for primary computer memory. Memory chips contained transistors in intersecting rows and columns, from which the bytes could be retrieved individually. This permitted the construction of a hierarchy of computers of different sizes. Memory chips also increased in their storage capacity and in their performance, in parallel with the development of increasingly powerful central processor chips.

F. A. Kulikowski The C++ language was invented by Stroustrup at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the 1980s as an extended version of the standard C language to further support objectoriented programming [252]. PERL was developed in 1987 with some of the features of C language; it was widely used for building Web-based applications, for interfacing and accessing database modules, for generating SQL queries, and for text processing [63]. GEMISCH (GEneralized Medical Information System for Community Health) was developed in 1969 by Hammond, Stead, and Straube at Duke University using a DEC minicomputer.

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