By Frederick Copleston
Conceived initially as a significant presentatin of the advance of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A historical past Of Philosophy has journeyed a ways past the modest function of its writer to common acclaim because the top heritage of philosophy in English.
Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of large erudition who as soon as tangled with A.J. Ayer in a fabled debate in regards to the lifestyles of God and the potential of metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient vitamin of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with such a lot of history's nice thinkers used to be lowered to simplistic caricatures. Copleston got down to redress the inaccurate by way of writing an entire heritage of Western Philosophy, one crackling with incident an highbrow pleasure - and one who offers complete position to every philosopher, featuring his inspiration in a fantastically rounded demeanour and displaying his hyperlinks to those that went ahead of and to those that got here after him.
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Additional info for A History of Philosophy, Volume 5: Modern Philosophy: The British Philosophers from Hobbes to Hume
4 Bodies in motion generate motion in the organs of sense, and thence arise the phantasms which we call colour, sound, savour, odour, hardness and softness, light and so on. A contiguous and moving body effects the outermost part of the organ of sense, and pressure or motion is transmitted to the innermost part of the organ. A t the same time, by reason of the natural internal motion of the organ, a reaction against this pressure takes place, an 'endeavour outwards' stimulated b y the 'endeavour inwards'.
I, p. 77. , 1, p. 104. , p. 103. , 1, pp. 121-2. 1 22 A HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY—V the latter is the aggregate of requisite accidents in the patient. Both together make up the entire cause. We can, indeed, talk about the power of the agent and the power of the patient, or, rather, about the active power of the agent and the passive power of the patient. But these are objectively the same as the efficient cause and the material cause respectively, though different terms are used because we can consider the same things from different points of view.
Similarly, the aggregate of actions in the patient is called the material cause when it is considered in relation to the past, to the effect already produced, and the passive power of the patient when it is considered in relation to the future. As for the so-called 'formal' and 'final' causes, these are both reducible to efficient causes. 'For when it is said that the essence of a thing is the cause thereof, as to be rational is the cause of man, it is not intelligible; for it is all one, as if it were said, to be a man is the cause of man; which is not well said.