By Tony R. Kuphaldt
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Extra resources for AC
If we let the polarity markings guide our decision to either add or subtract voltage figures – whether those polarity markings represent the true polarity or just the meter test lead orientation – and include the mathematical signs of those voltage figures in our calculations, the result will always be correct. Again, the polarity markings serve as frames of reference to place the voltage figures’ mathematical signs in proper context. The same is true for AC voltages, except that phase angle substitutes for mathematical sign.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Later yet we learned that the number line could extend to the left of zero as well: ... ) learned in grade school share a common trait: they’re all one-dimensional. The straightness of the number line illustrates this graphically. You can move up or down the number line, but all ”motion” along that line is restricted to a single axis (horizontal). One-dimensional, scalar numbers are perfectly adequate for counting beads, representing weight, or measuring DC battery voltage, but they fall short of being able to represent something more complex like the distance and direction between two cities, or the amplitude and phase of an AC waveform.
All the rules and laws learned in the study of DC circuits apply to AC circuits as well (Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Laws, network analysis methods), with the exception of power calculations (Joule’s Law). The only qualification is that all variables must be expressed in complex form, taking into account phase as well as magnitude, and all voltages and currents must be of the same frequency (in order that their phase relationships remain constant). + 22 V ∠ -64 o E1 - 12 V ∠ 35o + E2 load 15 V ∠ 0 + o E3 - The polarity marks for all three voltage sources are oriented in such a way that their stated voltages should add to make the total voltage across the load resistor.