In a single of the main unique books of past due antiquity, Philoponus argues for the Christian view that subject will be created by means of God out of not anything. It wishes no previous subject for its production. whilst, Philoponus transforms Aristotle's perception of major subject as an incorporeal 'something - i do know no longer what' that serves because the final topic for receiving extension and traits. to the contrary, says Philoponus, the final word topic is extension. it really is three-d extension with its distinct dimensions and any features unspecified. furthermore, such extension is the defining attribute of physique. accordingly, thus far from being incorporeal, it's physique, and in addition to being major topic, it's shape - the shape that constitutes physique. This makes use of, yet solely disrupts, Aristotle's conceptual equipment. eventually, in Aristotle's scheme of different types, this extension isn't to be labeled lower than the second one classification of volume, yet less than the 1st classification of substance as a considerable volume. This quantity includes an English translation of Philoponus' statement, exact notes and advent, and a bibliography.
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Extra resources for Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 9-11 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
A human being comes to be from menses and sperm;100 the fig tree, for its part, from a planted seed and water which moistens it; out of air, on the other hand, when it is thickened comes water and when it is thinned fire; and the case is the same with everything else, whether natural or man-made (tekhnêtos). And so, they claim, if there had not been something prior to the generation of the cosmos out of which the cosmos has come to be, it would have been absolutely impossible for it to have come to be.
11. So even when conceding that everything which comes to be comes to be out of something [already] in being, we have discovered no necessity that the universe too should, if it comes to be, come to be out of something [already] in being. e. change from non-being to being – for that is what generation is) as a whole (I mean both in respect of its matter and in respect of its form), or not as a whole? e. both in respect of its matter and in respect of its form), then clearly that which perishes also perishes as a whole.
142 It would have to leave its own substrate, I mean the fire, and then the fire would no longer be hot, or not as hot, since its heat, or part of it, would be leaving it and entering the air as its substrate. So what should we conclude? [That] the heat in the fire, being active and naturally equipped to heat its surroundings, generates other heat in the surrounding air; and, just as a theorem is formally the same (to auto kat’ eidos) in the teacher and the pupil, but not, for all that, numerically the same, and the one in the teacher is the efficient cause of the one in the pupil, and [the one in the pupil] is caused [by it], so too is the heat in the fire, which is numerically different from the heat in the air, its efficient cause.