An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry by Julian E. Andrews, Peter Brimblecombe, Tim D. Jickells,

By Julian E. Andrews, Peter Brimblecombe, Tim D. Jickells, Peter S. Liss, Brian Reid

This introductory textual content explains the basics of the chemistry of the normal setting and the consequences of mankind's actions at the earth's chemical platforms. keeps an emphasis on describing how traditional geochemical techniques function over numerous scales in time and house, and the way the results of human perturbation should be measured. issues diversity from generic international concerns reminiscent of atmospheric pollutants and its impact on worldwide warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological procedures that reason toxins of consuming water deltas. comprises sections and data containers that specify the fundamental chemistry underpinning the topic lined. each one bankruptcy includes a record of extra examining at the topic quarter. up to date case stories. No past chemistry wisdom required. appropriate for introductory point classes.

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Some molecules contain more than one functional group, for example the amino acids contain both –COOH and –NH2: H H amino group N H C H OH C O carboxyl group Amino acids also behave as weak acids due to the –COOH group, so they can release H+ ions by dissociation, for example in the simple amino acid glycine: NH2CH 2COOH Æ H + + NH2CH2COO glycine eqn. : H+ + NH2CH 2COO- Æ + NH3CH 2COO - eqn. 11 The amino acids thus have the unusual ability to form dipolar ions, denoted by the + sign on the amino group and the — sign on the COO.

Such anthropogenic changes to natural cycles essentially mimic and in some cases enhance or speed up what nature does anyway. In contrast to the situation for exotic chemicals described earlier, changes to natural cycles should be easier to predict, since the process is one of enhancement of what already occurs, rather than addition of something completely new. Thus, knowledge of how a natural system works now and has done in the past should be helpful in predicting the effects of human-induced changes.

5 billion years old. In rocks of this age there is fossil evidence of quite advanced metabolisms which utilized solar energy to synthesize organic material. The very earliest of autotrophic (self-feeding) reactions were probably based on sulphur (S), supplied from volcanic vents. CO 2(g ) + 2H 2S(g ) Æ CH 2O (s ) + 2S(s ) + H 2O ( l ) (organic matter) eqn. 5 billion years ago photochemical splitting of water, or photosynthesis was happening. H 2O ( l) + CO 2( g ) Æ CH 2O ( s) + O 2( g ) eqn. ) The production of oxygen during photosynthesis had a profound effect.

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