By R. M. W. Dixon
Basic Linguistic Theory presents a basic characterization of the character of human languages and a complete consultant to their description and research. In crystal-clear prose, R. M. W. Dixon describes the way to move approximately doing linguistics. He exhibit how grammatical constructions and principles might be labored out at the foundation of inductive generalisations, and explains the stairs during which an attested grammar and lexicon can equipped up from saw utterances. He describes how the grammars and vocabulary of 1 language might be in comparison to others of a similar or varied households, explains the equipment considering cross-linguistic parametric analyses, and exhibits the way to interpret the consequences.
Volume three introduces and examines key grammatical issues, each one from a cross-linguistic point of view. the themes comprise quantity structures, negation, reflexives and reciprocals, passives, causatives, comparative buildings, and questions. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the relation among linguistic rationalization and the tradition and world-view of the linguist and audio system of the language she or he is describing. The publication ends with a consultant to assets, a attention of the variety of languages on the planet, a word list, and indexes of authors, languages, and matters protecting all 3 volumes. quantity 1 addresses the technique for recording, analysing, and evaluating languages and contains chapters on research, typology, phonology, the lexicon, and box linguistics. quantity 2, just like the current paintings, considers underlying ideas of grammatical association, and has chapters dedicated to the be aware, nouns and verbs, adjectives, transitivity, copula structures, pronouns and demonstratives, ownership, relative clauses and complementation.
Basic Linguistic Theory is the successful end result of a lifetime's puzzling over each point and manifestation of language. The volumes contain a one-stop advent for undergraduate and graduate scholars of linguistics, in addition to for these in neighbouring disciplines, similar to psychology and anthropology.
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Extra resources for Basic linguistic theory. / Volume 3, Further grammatical topics
Choice may be more limited in certain contexts, such as under negation. preﬁx-object preﬁx- . . -stem The polarity preﬁx is hu- for negative and zero for positive. The major tenseaspect preﬁxes are: 18 19 non-spatial setting (21) present progressive past perfect future positive polarity⎫ -a⎬ -na⎭ -li-me-ta- negative polarity -si-ku-ta- That is, the contrast between present, progressive, and past is neutralized in negative clauses. In the Papuan language Nend (Harris 1990: 121–2), the distinction between immediate past and far past is only made in positive, not in negative, clauses.
7), each bearing an ‘eyewitness’ or ‘non-eyewitness’ evidentiality value. There is no present tense, and statements corresponding to (13) and (14) would be tenseless. ’ would not be tenseless. past-eyewitness(m)-dec(m) [oko jobe jaa] my house in The ﬂashlight was seen a short time ago lying on a raised surface in my house (that is, I left the ﬂashlight on a shelf in my house) One must specify the stance of the ﬂashlight, here using verb fore- ‘lie on a raised surface’. And one should provide full evidence for the statement that the ﬂashlight has been seen in that position a short while in the past, using the immediate past eyewitness suﬃx -hare.
Reference to Mary’s wedding uses what can be called the ‘particular future’ (Dixon 2005a: 212), am getting married, on the day it happens but past tense, got married, is employed the next day. It will be seen that the category of shifter covers grammatical indicators of tense and also certain temporal adverbs. It is interesting to enquire whether every language which lacks a tense system does have lexical time shifters. For every instance that has been checked, this is the case. It has always struck me that having items with shifting reference is a highly sophisticated feature of human language.