By Andrei Khrennikov

The current wave of curiosity in quantum foundations is brought on by the large improvement of quantum info technological know-how and its functions to quantum computing and quantum conversation. It has develop into transparent that many of the problems encountered in realizations of quantum info processing have roots on the very primary point. to resolve such difficulties, quantum conception should be reconsidered. This ebook is dedicated to the research of the probabilistic constitution of quantum concept, probing the boundaries of classical probabilistic illustration of quantum phenomena.

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**Extra resources for Beyond Quantum**

**Example text**

We also mention the strong opposition to the notion of photon from two pioneers of QM: Alfred Lande [223, 224] (in particular, this name is associated with Lande g-factor and the ﬁrst explanation for the anomalous Zeeman eﬀect) and Willis E. , Lamb shift). 9 for the evolution of the Einstein views). The latter written in 1910 contained the following: What we understand by the theory of “light quanta” may be formulated in the following fashion: a radiation of frequency ν can be emitted or absorbed only in a well-deﬁned quantum of magnitude hν.

Ludwig, Davis, D’Ariano, Holevo, Busch, Grabowski, Lahti, Ozawa [46, 59, 61, 70, 115, 116, 215, 232, 255, 256]) typically proceed with the ensemble interpretation, too. In contrast to Einstein, Margenau, and Ballentine, they are sure that encodes all possible statistical characteristics of an ensemble, because they believe in completeness of QM. At the ﬁrst sight, PCSFT presents a strong argument against such a viewpoint (introducing a new statistical characteristic): the covariance operator does not determine a probability distribution uniquely.

Intriguingly, not only Planck but also Bohr was among the skeptics, and Bohr only accepted the idea in view of these experiments. Planck, who, as discussed earlier, strongly resisted Einstein’s introduction of the concept of the photon, had never reconciled himself to the idea. Thus, it appears that until roughly 1920, Einstein did not have a strongly held philosophical position of the type he developed later on, ﬁrst, following his work on general relativity (a classical-like ﬁeld theory) and, secondly and most especially, in the wake of quantum mechanics.