Biogeochemistry: an Analysis of Global Change by William H Schlesinger (Auth.)

By William H Schlesinger (Auth.)

Biogeochemistry is the examine of the geochemical reactions that happen within the surroundings, oceans, and crustal minerals of the Earth's floor as stricken by residing organisms. this article examines worldwide adjustments that experience happened and are taking place in water, air, and on land, and relates them to the worldwide cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur. The textual content is meant for college students and pros within the environmental, geochemical, and ecological disciplines

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O u r best estimate of t h e sources of N 2 0 suggest a n a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n of at least 12 20 x 1 0 g/yr, giving a m e a n residence time of over 100 yr for N 2 0 in 47 3. The Atmosphere t h e a t m o s p h e r e (Cicerone, 1987, C h a p t e r 12). With such a l o n g residence time relative to mixing, this gas s h o u l d be relatively evenly d i s t r i b u t e d within t h e a t m o s p h e r e , s h o w i n g h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s only at s t r o n g p o i n t sources.

On Mars and Earth the increase was terminated when the water vapor pressure in the atmosphere reached the saturated vapor pressure, shown as the solid line, and freezing or condensation occurred. On Venus, temperatures are higher because it is closer to the Sun and saturation was not achieved. All gases released to the atmosphere from volcanoes on Venus remain in the atmosphere, where they produce a large greenhouse effect that has increased through time. Modified from Walker (1977). f o u n d dissolved in seawater o n E a r t h , also reside as gases in t h e a t m o ­ sphere on Venus.

I n C h a p t e r 2 we discussed t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of O 2 in t h e a t m o s p h e r e d u r i n g t h e evolution of life o n E a r t h . T h e a t m o s p h e r e contains only a small p o r t i o n of t h e total 0 2 released by photosynthesis t h r o u g h geologic 3. The A t m o s p h e r e 51 time. Nevertheless, t h e c o n t e n t in t h e a t m o s p h e r e today is n o t d e t e r ­ m i n e d by t h e c u r r e n t r a t e of photosynthesis o n land a n d in t h e sea. T h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s c o m b u s t i o n of all t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r now stored o n l a n d would r e d u c e t h e a t m o s p h e r i c o x y g e n c o n t e n t by only 0 .

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