By Wilfried Zetsche, Marcus Herbote
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Additional info for British Lightnings: Die English Electric Lightning der RAF in Deutschland / The Vertical Twin of the RAF in Germany
Temporary duration, number, earlierness), (13) Contractible copula: He’s sick. (number, earlierness), (14) Contractible auxiliary: He’s running. (temporary duration, number, earlierness). Whole Language, Whole Person: A Handbook of Language Teaching Methodology 42 In the seventies, several investigators of instructional accuracy orders replicated and extended Brown‟s experiments for English as a second language. In their “morpheme studies”, Heidi Dulay and Marina Burt (1974) examined the natural sequences in second language acquisition applying the Bilingual Syntax Measure.
Today, numerous methodology textbooks expound on the nature of communicative language teaching. All the work that has been done on the CA has led to the evolvement of two quite distinct orientations: a “weak” version and a “strong” version of the method. Anthony Howatt (1984, 279) holds that if the former could be described as „learning to use‟ the target language, the latter entails „using [the target language] to learn it‟. The weak version advances the claim that communicative syllabi and teaching materials should provide the learner with opportunities to acquire communicative competence necessary and sufficient to be used in actual communication.
4. Many scholars have contributed to the development of the CA. For example, Dell Hymes introduced the construct of “communicative competence” in his famous paper, On Communicative Competence (1971). He explores the influence of the social context in which a language is learnt on the linguistic competence, which the individual attains. Hymes claims that “a normal child acquires knowledge of sentences, not only as grammatical, but also as appropriate. He or she acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner.