C# 4.0 in a Nutshell: The Definitive Reference by Ben Albahari, Joseph Albahari

By Ben Albahari, Joseph Albahari

What individuals are asserting approximately C# 4.0 in a Nutshell
"C# 4.0 in a Nutshell is among the few books I stick with it my table as a short reference. it's a publication I recommend." --Scott Guthrie, company vice chairman, .NET Developer Platform, Microsoft company
"A must-read for a concise yet thorough exam of the parallel programming beneficial properties within the .NET Framework 4." --Stephen Toub, Parallel Computing Platform application supervisor, Microsoft
"This great booklet is a smart reference for builders of all levels." -- Chris Burrows, C# Compiler group, Microsoft

in case you have questions about the way to use C# 4.0 or the .NET CLR, this hugely acclaimed bestseller has exactly the solutions you would like. Uniquely equipped round strategies and use situations, this fourth version comprises in-depth assurance of recent C# themes similar to parallel programming, code contracts, dynamic programming, safeguard, and COM interoperability. You'll additionally locate up-to-date details on LINQ, together with examples that paintings with either LINQ to SQL and Entity Framework. This ebook has all of the crucial information to maintain you on target with C# 4.0. * wake up to hurry on C# language fundamentals, together with syntax, kinds, and variables
* discover complex issues reminiscent of dangerous code and preprocessor directives
* study C# 4.0 positive factors reminiscent of dynamic binding, sort parameter variance, and non-compulsory and named parameters
* paintings with .NET 4's wealthy set of positive factors for parallel programming, code contracts, and the code safeguard model
* examine .NET themes, together with XML, collections, I/O and networking, reminiscence administration, mirrored image, attributes, safety, and local interoperability

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Parameters define the set of arguments that must be provided for that method. WriteLine(p); // Write p to screen } static void Main() { Foo (8); } You can control how parameters are passed with the ref and out modifiers: Parameter modifier Passed by Variable must be definitely assigned None Value Going in ref Reference Going in out Reference Going out 38 | Chapter 2: C# Language Basics Passing arguments by value By default, arguments in C# are passed by value, which is by far the most common case.

If you use an invalid index, an IndexOutOfRangeException is thrown: int[] arr = new int[3]; arr[3] = 1; // IndexOutOfRangeException thrown As with Java, array bounds checking is necessary for type safety and simplifies debugging. Generally, the performance hit from bounds checking is minor, and the JIT (Just-in-Time) compiler can perform optimizations, such as determining in advance whether all indexes will be safe before entering a loop, thus avoiding a check on each iteration. In addition, C# provides “unsafe” code that can explicitly bypass bounds checking (see the section “Unsafe Code and Pointers” on page 170 in Chapter 4).

For example: int x = 3; /* This is a comment that spans two lines */ Comments may embed XML documentation tags, explained in “XML Documentation” on page 176 in Chapter 4. Type Basics A type defines the blueprint for a value. A value is a storage location denoted by a variable or a constant. A variable represents a value that can change, whereas a 12 | Chapter 2: C# Language Basics constant represents an invariant (we will visit constants later in the chapter). WriteLine (x); } Predefined Type Examples Predefined types are types that are specially supported by the compiler.

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