Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, by Sergey V. Dorozhkin

By Sergey V. Dorozhkin

Due to a superb chemical similarity with the organic calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates own extraordinary biocompatibility and bioactivity. fabrics scientists use this estate widely to build man made bone grafts which are both fullyyt made from or simply surface-coated with the biologically appropriate calcium orthophosphates. Porous scaffolds made from calcium orthophosphates are very promising instruments for tissue engineering purposes. A finished assessment of calcium orthophosphates, this booklet highlights their significance and biomedical uses.

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Extra resources for Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, and Medicine

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Reprinted from Ref. [437] with permission. The Members of Calcium Orthophosphate Family FA easily forms solid solutions with HA with any desired F/OH molar ratio. Such compounds are called fluorhydroxyapatites (FHA) or hydroxyfluorapatites (HFA) and described with a chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2−xFx, where 0 < x < 2. If the F/OH ratio is either uncertain or not important, the chemical formula of FHA and HFA is often written as Ca10(PO4)6(F,OH)2. The lattice parameters, crystal structure, solubility and other properties of FHA and HFA lay in between of those for the chemically pure FA and HA [447–451].

It has been proposed as an intermediate in both bone mineralization and dissolution of enamel in acids (dental erosion) [27, 83, 84]. In medicine, DCPD is used in calcium orthophosphate cements [131, 148–151] and as an intermediate for tooth remineralization. DCPD is added to toothpaste both for caries protection (in this case, it is coupled with F-containing compounds such as NaF and/or Na2PO3F) and as a gentle polishing agent [152–156]. Other applications include a flame retardant [157], a slow release fertilizer, using in glass production, as well as calcium supplement in food, feed and cereals [134].

In general, as all amorphous compounds are characterized by a lack of lrO, it is problematic to discuss the structure of ACPs (they are X-ray amorphous). Concerning a short-range order (SrO) in ACPs, it exists, just due to the nature of chemical bonds. Unfortunately, in many cases, the SrO in ACPs is uncertain either, because it depends on many variables, such as Ca/P ratio, preparation conditions, storage, admixtures, etc. It is well known that freshly precipitated ACPs contain 10–20% by weight of tightly bound water, which is removed by vacuum drying at elevated temperature [284].

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