By Sergey V. Dorozhkin
Due to a superb chemical similarity with the organic calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates own extraordinary biocompatibility and bioactivity. fabrics scientists use this estate widely to build man made bone grafts which are both fullyyt made from or simply surface-coated with the biologically appropriate calcium orthophosphates. Porous scaffolds made from calcium orthophosphates are very promising instruments for tissue engineering purposes. A finished assessment of calcium orthophosphates, this booklet highlights their significance and biomedical uses.
Read Online or Download Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, and Medicine PDF
Similar solid-state physics books
This article comprises assurance of significant subject matters that aren't in most cases featured in different textbooks on condensed subject physics; those contain surfaces, the quantum corridor influence and superfluidity. the writer avoids advanced formalism, corresponding to Green's services, which could imprecise the underlying physics, and as a substitute emphasizes basic actual reasoning.
Researchers in academia and who're attracted to ideas for measuring intermolecular forces will locate this a vital textual content. It offers a overview of recent strength spectroscopy, together with basics of intermolecular forces, technical points of the strength measurements, and functional purposes.
Superconductivity is a quantum phenomenon that manifests itself in fabrics displaying 0 electric resistance under a attribute temperature leading to the potential of an electrical present to run always via any such fabric with no the necessity for an influence resource. Such fabrics are used widely in clinical and gear functions, e.
Ugly's electric References, 2014 variation is designed for use as an on-the-job reference. Used world wide by way of electricians, engineers, contractors, designers, upkeep staff, teachers, and the army; Ugly's includes the main generally required electric info in an easy-to-read and easy-to-access layout.
- Physical and Chemical Aspects of Organic Electronics
- Physics of High-Tc Superconductors
- Thermal Transport in Strongly Correlated Rare-Earth Intermetallic Compounds (Springer Theses)
- Theoretical Solid State Physics, Vol. 2: Non-Equilibrium and Disorder (Non-Equilibrium & Disorder)
Extra resources for Calcium Orthophosphates: Applications in Nature, Biology, and Medicine
Reprinted from Ref.  with permission. The Members of Calcium Orthophosphate Family FA easily forms solid solutions with HA with any desired F/OH molar ratio. Such compounds are called fluorhydroxyapatites (FHA) or hydroxyfluorapatites (HFA) and described with a chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2−xFx, where 0 < x < 2. If the F/OH ratio is either uncertain or not important, the chemical formula of FHA and HFA is often written as Ca10(PO4)6(F,OH)2. The lattice parameters, crystal structure, solubility and other properties of FHA and HFA lay in between of those for the chemically pure FA and HA [447–451].
It has been proposed as an intermediate in both bone mineralization and dissolution of enamel in acids (dental erosion) [27, 83, 84]. In medicine, DCPD is used in calcium orthophosphate cements [131, 148–151] and as an intermediate for tooth remineralization. DCPD is added to toothpaste both for caries protection (in this case, it is coupled with F-containing compounds such as NaF and/or Na2PO3F) and as a gentle polishing agent [152–156]. Other applications include a flame retardant , a slow release fertilizer, using in glass production, as well as calcium supplement in food, feed and cereals .
In general, as all amorphous compounds are characterized by a lack of lrO, it is problematic to discuss the structure of ACPs (they are X-ray amorphous). Concerning a short-range order (SrO) in ACPs, it exists, just due to the nature of chemical bonds. Unfortunately, in many cases, the SrO in ACPs is uncertain either, because it depends on many variables, such as Ca/P ratio, preparation conditions, storage, admixtures, etc. It is well known that freshly precipitated ACPs contain 10–20% by weight of tightly bound water, which is removed by vacuum drying at elevated temperature .