Competition and Coercion: Blacks in the American economy by Robert Higgs

By Robert Higgs

Festival and Coercion: Blacks within the American financial system, 1865-1914 is a reinterpretation of black monetary background within the half-century after Emancipation. Its primary topic is that monetary pageant and racial coercion together made up our minds the fabric of the blacks. The publication identifies a couple of aggressive methods that performed very important roles in conserving blacks from the racial coercion to which they have been exceptionally susceptible. It additionally records the huge monetary earnings discovered via the black inhabitants among 1865 and 1914. Professor Higgs's account is iconoclastic. It seeks to reorganize the current conceptualization of the interval and to redirect destiny research of black financial background within the post-Emancipation interval. It increases new questions and indicates new solutions to outdated questions, saying that the various outdated questions are misleadingly framed or now not worthy pursuing in any respect.

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Extra resources for Competition and Coercion: Blacks in the American economy 1865-1914

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The old masters not only objected to the higher cost of labor but considered it degrad­ ing to deal with their former slaves as equal parties to an exchange in the labor market. "Men did not feel kindly that their old slaves should take time to consider the question of hiring with them, and should presume to haggle about wages. "5 Indeed, even the m<>st docile freedman might encounter danger at any moment, for the postwar atmosphere seethed with racial hatred, and 1 865 witnessed an orgy of persecution of the freedmen.

And, unlike the whites, the blacks migrated from the South more rapidly during the period 1 890-1910 than during the preceding two decades. 21> Not all Southern states experienced a net loss of blacks through mi­ gration. States with net out-migration of blacks in at least three of the four decades after 1870 included Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Ken­ tucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi. On the other hand, Ar­ kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas witnessed a positive net migration of blacks during three of those four decades.

20 That the share system soon came to involve many white tenants on the same terms as the blacks also argues against the contention that it was a de­ vice of race control. Crop-sharing arrangements had existed during the war in certain areas occupied by Northern forces, and share systems appeared through- 46 Competition and coercion out the South in 1865 and 1 866. The terms of share contracts varied enormously with respect to how farm inputs and outputs were divided between the landlord and the tenant.

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