By L. Tondl (auth.), Friedrich Rapp (eds.)
The hugely subtle thoughts of contemporary engineering are mostly conceived of in functional phrases. similar to the instrumental functionality of expertise, they're designed to direct the forces of nature based on human reasons. but, once the world of mere talents is handed, the meant worthwhile effects can in simple terms be completed via deliberate and preconceived motion methods concerning the intentionally thought of program of good designed instruments and units. this is often to claim that during all complicated instances theoretical reasoning turns into an essential capability to complete the pragmatic technological goals. for that reason the abstracting from the particular concrete functionality of expertise opens how you can focus recognition at the common conceptual framework concerned. If this strategy is followed the proper wisdom and the systems utilized in actual fact express a good judgment in their personal. This perspective ends up in a methodological or even an epistemological research of the theoretical constitution and the categorical equipment of method attribute of recent expertise. Investigations of this type, that may be defined as belonging to an ana lytical philosophy of know-how, shape the subject of this anthology. the kind of examine in query this is heavily equivalent to that of the philosophy of technology. however it is an staggering indisputable fact that the widely permitted and thoroughly investigated philosophy of technology has now not but came upon its counterpart in a longtime philosophy of technology.
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Additional info for Contributions to a Philosophy of Technology: Studies in the Structure of Thinking in the Technological Sciences
Real situations are much too complex for this, and effective action is much too strongly urged to permit a detailed study - a study that would begin by isolating variables and tying some of them into a theoretical model. The desideratum being maximal efficiency, and not at all truth, a number of practical measures will usually be attempted at the same time: the strategist will counsel the simultaneous use of weapons of several kinds, the physician will prescribe a number of supposedly concurrent treatments, and the politician may combine promises and threats.
The two conditionals being false, the biconditional 'x knows y if and only if x knows how to do (or make) y' is false, too. In short, it is false that knowledge is identical with knowing how to do, or knowhow. What is true is rather this; knowledge considerably improves the chances of correct doing, and doing may lead to knowing more (now that we have learned that knowledge pays), not because action is knowledge, but because, in inquisitive minds, action may trigger questioning. It is only by distinguishing scientific knowledge from instrumental knowledge, or know-how, that we can hope to account for the coexistence of practical knowledge with theoretical ignorance and the coexistence of theoretical knowledge with practical ignorance.
Henceforth the system will gather new information regarding the present state of affairs and will act so as to conform to the strategy it has elaborated. This strategy may have required not only new information regarding the external world (including the attitudes and capabilities of the people concerned) but also new hypotheses or even theories which had not been present in the instruction chart originally received by the predictor. If the latter fails to realize it or to obtain and utilize such additional knowledge, his or its action is bound to be ineffective.