Geochemistry of Epigenesis by Aleksandr I. Perel’man (auth.)

By Aleksandr I. Perel’man (auth.)

In its classical experience "epigenesis" refers to all geological tactics originating at or close to the skin of the earth. It therefore embraces all these phenomena which we go along with the land­ scape; Perel'man has already written generally in this topic. The panorama, within the actual feel, is managed via the interac­ tion of exogenic and endogenic agencies-on the single hand, the atmo­ sphere, the wind, the rain, and different parts of the elements, the forces of operating water and the planetary controls of gravitational and tidal nature; and however the fabrics of the earth's crust, from sediments to metamorphic rocks and igneous fabrics from deep endogenic assets. In useful phrases the epigene quarter consists of the goods of weathering, the soils, the transported fabric, the colluvium of hillsides, and the alluvium of circulation valleys. It includes these landforms which are items of the erosional sculpturing of the panorama, in addition to those who consequence from accumulation, equivalent to glacial moraines and desolate tract sand dunes. The technological know-how of geomor­ phology is progressively commencing to evolve from a passive cataloging of surroundings and its deduced explanations (in the Davisian feel) right into a full of life research of dynamic strategies. those are in part geophysical, within the experience of hydraulics and mechanical reviews, and in part geo­ chemical.

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Similarly, a rare anion CrOl- LAW OF MASS ACTION IN GEOCHEMISTRY 55 Table 14. Average Numbers of Minerals Possible for One Element of Each Decade (after Saukov, 1946) Decade I II III IV V verage num-\ Clarke, weightOJo of minerals W ossible for >10 1-10 10°_10- 1 10- 1_10- 2 10- 2_10- 3 729 239 139 31 28 ,ber one element Decade VI VII VIII IX X I Clarke, weight"o I 10- 3_10- 4 10- 4 _10- 5 10- 5_10- 6 1O- 6 _IO- i <10- 7 Average num ber of minerals possible for one element 4 23 28 23 2

Elements like Na, K, Ca, Rh, Cs, and Sr do not form hydroxides under the conditionsexistillg in the earth's crust, and the pH of water can affect their precipitation only indirectly. Thus evaluating the role of pH of water as a factor in migration the approach should be made selectively on the basis of hydroxide solubilities, elements' abundances, and their content in water. The role of pH is negligible in the precipitation of the hydroxides of many rare elements because of their extremely low concentration.

FeHPO. CaHPO. AsO. 9. 9 . 10- 5 6. 8 . 2. 6. 2. 1 . 2 . 7. 1 . 8. 0. 10- 7 7 . 2. 6. 10- 5 9. 5 . 1 . 10- 7 8. 4 . 10- 3 - - - L6. 5. 21 . 10- 2 3. 10- 4 - 16 • 10-' g In 1 er 10: mole I bter co~- liter 7. 10- 19 4. 10- 9 5. 6 . 0. 5. 10- 14 - 7 . 10- 21 3 . l . 3 . 10- 21 8. 10- 27 10-10 mole! 3 . 2. 9. 7 . 10- 4 4. 10- 2 I . 4 . 2. 10- 42 4 . 6. 6. 21 g/1iter 3. 1. 9. 5. 9 . 2 . 9. 10- 19 5. 8. 9. 8. 8 . 9 . 9. 10- 12 2. 10- 10 - 2. 7 . 10- 5 -- - 5 . 3 . 10- 3 - 2. 10- 5 8. 10- 4 - - - - - - 10~liter mole!

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