Geochemistry of Organic Matter in the Ocean by Evgenii A. Romankevich

By Evgenii A. Romankevich

My paintings Geochemistry oj natural subject within the ocean first seemed in Russian in 1978. on account that then a lot development has been made within the exploration of assorted kinds of natural subject within the ocean: dissolved, colloidal, natural subject sus­ pended in debris and that contained in backside sediments and in interstitial waters. the right proof is located in hundreds and hundreds of articles and several other re­ view works, reminiscent of Andersen (1977), Biogeochimie de [a matiere organique a ['interjace eau-sedimentmarine (1980), Duursma and Dawson (1981). a large amount of latest details has been bought within the Soviet Union's clinical associations at the composition and distribution in average waters and backside sediments of natural subject and its separate elements taking part in a very important function within the formation of the chemical and organic constitution of the sea and its productiveness, within the biogeochemistry of the weather and geochemistry of natural topic within the Earth's sedimentary hide. The parts of exploration have extended during the last four-and-a-half years to embody many new, little-known areas, together with the Arctic seas. unlike the 3 preceeding a long time, the learn has been interested by investigating the prevailing varieties, the distribution and accumulation of natural topic in close to­ continental oceanic zones among land and sea, and in river estuaries.

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In 1955 Skopintsev and Krylova summarized the most reliable data on the content of total Cor (DOC -\" POC) in river waters and calculated that C org accounts for 10 mg 1- ~ Of this about 5 mg 1-1 arrives in the ocean in the dissolved form (180 X 106 tons DOC). A similar value was obtained by Menzel (200 x 106 tons DOC) who extrapolated the values obtained for the Mississippi, Hudson and Amazon rivers to the total surface runoff into the ocean (Menzel 1974). 6 x 106 tons are deposited in the area which lacks discharge access to the ocean.

AB section line fir .... l. ~ S· ~ ~. 0Cl o 0.. , ~ g 32 Carbon of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Ocean DOC distribution in ocean depths may thus manifest regional differences (Sverdrup et al. 1942, Redfield et al. 1963, Pytokowicz 1968). The other view presupposes that the supply of DOC, as well as of POC, to deep waters is negligible and their distribution is homogeneous (or nearly homogeneous) both in space and time (Menzel and Ryther 1970, Menzel 1974, MacKinnon 1981). The present chapter contains material on the determination of the C org content in approximately 1500 samples of sea water, performed by the methods of dry and/or wet burning developed in the Soviet Union (Skopintsev and Timofeyeva 1961, Liutsarev and Smetankin 1980).

Estimating the scale of this process in water basins is the task facing future workers. Bacterial photosynthesis is principally effected by purple bacteria using light as the energy source, CO2 as the carbon source, and mineral compounds (H 2S, H 2) as well as some organic substances as the oxidized substrate. These processes of OM synthesis may make progress wherever water contains H 2S and sufficient light is available for photosynthesis. In modern times such conditions are present only in isolated lakes where such organic matter production may be a few times Sources of Organic Matter in the Ocean 16 as high as the photosynthesis of planktonic algae (Kuznetsov 1970).

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