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Additional info for Geographies of Development: An Introduction to Development Studies (3rd Edition)
The prominence and influence of development economics in the 1950s and 1960s have clear repercussions on other terminologies related to development, most notably the way in which underdeveloped countries were identified and described, a point which is elaborated in the second half of this chapter. The earliest and for many still the most convenient way of quantifying underdevelopment has been through the level of Gross National Product (GNP) per capita pertaining to a nation or territory. GDP is defined in the Key idea box, but can broadly be seen as measuring income per head of the population.
14 .. 2 Mahatma Gandhi (photo: Alamy Images/Dionodia Images) For many, the Indian activist Mahatma Gandhi has come to symbolise the call for peaceful principles of locally driven development and change. Born in western India in 1869, and having studied law in England, Gandhi lived in South Africa for over 20 years. He opposed the ‘pass laws’ and all forms of racial discrimination (see Singh, 2005). Unfortunately, these worthy objectives relating to shelter, education or health not only competed with one another for funding but were also tackled with the same universalist approaches that had bedevilled earlier development strategies.
More locally oriented views began to emerge; for example, in the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation’s concept of ‘another development’, one that was more human centred (see also Chapter 3). These approaches were soon co-opted into official development policies, underpinning the ‘basic needs’ strategies of the 1970s, which fragmented the monolithic targets for development into what were seen as more locally and socially oriented goals. 14 .. 2 Mahatma Gandhi (photo: Alamy Images/Dionodia Images) For many, the Indian activist Mahatma Gandhi has come to symbolise the call for peaceful principles of locally driven development and change.