Language in the Ancient Near East: Proceedings of the 53e by L. Kogan, N. Koslova, S. Loesov, S. Tishchenko

By L. Kogan, N. Koslova, S. Loesov, S. Tishchenko

In July 2007, the 53rd Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (the annual assembly of the overseas organization of Assyriologists) used to be held in Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia. In Moscow, a number of hundred Assyriologists loved the hospitality of the Russian nation college for the arts. Dozens of papers at the subject “Language within the historical close to East,” have been added on the collage. greater than 50 of these papers are released during this 2-volume set.

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Adverbs, particles and clitics and their use are only partly understood. Some like igi-zu (Gudea Stat. B vii 59) = OB i-gi4-in-zu ‘just as if (it were),’100 u4-da ‘if,’ tukum-bi ‘if ’ look like frozen (parts of) sentences and may also function as conjunctions; those formed with suffixed /-eš/ or -bé(-éš/eš) show a clear morphological pattern, others like u4-ba/-bi-a ‘then, at this time,’ ki-ba/bi-a ‘there’ may still be understood as dimensional objects in the sentence. 2. 1. Adjectives and verbs of state We know nouns, pronouns, adverbs, particles and verbs as parts of speech, but—after Jeremy Black’s stimulating study101—need to learn more about adjectives and verbs of state: they function as attributes and predicates, are declinated, take the enclitic copula or are conjugated.

114 He sees the “PRONOMINAL CONJUGATION” as a participial syntagma adverbially using a marû or ¶am¢u verbal base which he understands as an infinitive plus the “suffix of determination” -/a/, plus a pronominal suffix relating to the subject and a dimensional suffix -/ne/. Balke’s strange mix of participle, infinitive and adverb—though on different levels of form and function—looks like an attempt at boxing a circle.

It must have taken place after one began to write prefixes syllabically. But did it happen in vernacular OS while the conservative graphic system still followed the traditional standard language and thus seemingly turned NU into a “morpho-grapheme”? Did it happen only at or after the end of the OS period? 58 52 Before the Sargonic period, the [b] is not bound to the following verb /e/; see the Presargonic letters in Kienast–Volk 1995 and, e. , Barton Cylinder i 12–14 an-né ki-da, inim an-dab6-e, ki an-da inim an-dab6-e ‘Heaven spoke a word with Earth, Earth spoke a word with Heaven’ (Alster–Westenholz 1994).

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