php architect's Guide to Web Scraping by Matthew Turland

By Matthew Turland

Regardless of all of the developments in internet APIs and interoperability, it really is inevitable that, at some point soon on your profession, you'll have to "scrape" content material from an internet site that was once now not outfitted with internet companies in brain. And, regardless of its occasionally less-than-stellar attractiveness, internet scraping is mostly a complete valid activity-for instance, to catch facts from an previous model of an internet site for insertion right into a glossy CMS. This ebook, written by means of scraping specialist Matthew Turland, covers internet scraping recommendations and themes that diversity from the straightforward to unique utilizing various applied sciences and frameworks: · figuring out HTTP requests · The Hypertext Preprocessor HTTP streams wrapper · cURL · pecl_http · PEAR:HTTP · Zend_Http_Client · construction your individual scraping library · utilizing Tidy · interpreting code with the DOM, SimpleXML and XMLReader extensions · CSS selector libraries · PCRE trend matching · counsel and tips · Multiprocessing / parallel processing

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The commonality of that particular misspelling caused it to end up in the official HTTP specification, thereby becoming the standard industry spelling used when referring to that particular header. There are multiple situations in which the specification of a referer can occur. A user may click on a hyperlink in a browser, in which case the full URL of the resource containing the hyperlink would be the referer. When a resource containing markup with embedded images is requested, subsequent requests for those images will contain the full URL of the page containing the images as the referer.

The client resends the original request, but this time includes an Authorization header including the authentication credentials. • The server either sends a response indicating success or one with a 403 status code indicating that authentication failed. In the case of Basic authentication, the value of the Authorization header will be the word Basic followed by a single space and then by a Base64-encoded sequence derived from the username-password pair separated by a colon. If, for example, the username is bigbadwolf and the password is letmein then the value of the header would be Basic YmlnYmFkd29sZjpsZXRtZWlu where the Base64-encoded version of the string bigbadwolf:letmein is what follows Basic.

The guidelines detailed there should definitely be accounted for when developing a web scraping application so as to prevent it from exhibiting behavior inconsistent with that of a normal user. In some cases, a client practice called user agent spoofing involving the specification of a false user agent string is enough to circumvent user agent sniffing, but not always. An application may have platform-specific requirements that legitimately warrant it denying access to certain user agents. In any case, spoofing the user agent is a practice that should be avoided to the fullest extent possible.

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