By Kim Quaile Hill
Illustration in Congress presents a thought of dyadic coverage illustration meant to account for whilst trust sharing, delegate, in charge occasion, trustee, and "party elite led" types of representational linkage come up on particular coverage concerns. The booklet additionally offers empirical assessments of many of the primary predictions for while such substitute versions look, and it provides checks of novel implications of the idea approximately different elements of legislative habit. a number of the latter checks get to the bottom of contradictory findings within the suitable, current literature - akin to no matter if and the way electoral marginality impacts illustration, even if roll name vote extremism impacts the re-election of incumbents, and what in truth is the representational habit of switched seat legislators. the entire empirical exams supply proof for the speculation. certainly, the total set of empirical exams offers proof for the causal results expected by means of the idea and masses of the causal approach in the back of these results.
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Extra resources for Representation in Congress: A Unified Theory
This assumption is implicitly accepted in every study of dyadic representation but is rarely explicitly stated. Nevertheless, Wahlke, Eulau, Buchanan, and Ferguson (1962, 294–300) offer an explicit statement of it early in the history of scientiﬁc research on this topic. Pitkin (1967, 219–20), who entered the debate about representation after the competing models of representation discussed in Chapter 1 had been established among scientiﬁc students of this topic, also recognizes this assumption.
Other examples indicate how issue “easiness” can evolve over time. It is plausible to suspect that New Deal social welfare policies evolved Theory of Dyadic Representation 35 from complicated to easy status over the period from their introduction to the 1950s. The various policies that were considered in the 1930s were novel and objectively complex and evoked considerable controversy (Skocpol with Ikenberry 1995, 137–66). But as Stokes and Miller (1963) and other works we have cited indicate, those issues enjoyed party-deﬁning status by the late 1950s.
Some examples of how individual issues have evolved in the preceding ways are useful for initial consideration of this fourth assumption. There are numerous cases of issues that have evolved from party-deﬁning to cross-cutting status or vice versa over time. Descriptive, historical evidence suggests that the Free Silver issue of the 1890s evolved from crosscutting status to a party-deﬁning one by the time of the critical election of 1896. Adams (1997) presents evidence that abortion evolved from a cross-cutting issue in the 1970s to a party-deﬁning one by the 1990s.