By Eric F. Schmidt, Stephen M. Strittmatter (auth.), R. J. Pasterkamp (eds.)
This e-book info our growth in knowing the receptor and intracellular signaling mechanisms used by a relatives of proteins referred to as the semaphorins. initially those protein have been pointed out as "axon suggestions cues" vital for the formation of nerve tracts yet now it's learned that semaphorins subserve a number of specific features in a large number of organ platforms.
This booklet summarizes our wisdom and makes it on hand as an invaluable and entire instrument for the clinical group. It covers the whole semaphorin box from neurosciences to cardiovascular examine and past, detailing the entire most recent ideas and effects. the great evaluate of semaphorin biology and signaling awarded during this publication permits one to match semaphorin services among assorted organic platforms. The publication should be of curiosity to humans operating within the box in addition to those that paintings in different fields of technological know-how and wish to study extra approximately semaphorins and linked signaling mechanisms.
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Additional resources for Semaphorins: Receptor and Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms
Vikis HG, Li W, He Z et al. The semaphorin receptor plexin-Bl specifically interacts with active rac in a ligand-dependent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97(23): 12457-12462. 54. Zanata SM, Hovatta I, Rohm B et al. Antagonistic effects of Rndl and RhoD GTPases regulate receptor activity in Semaphorin 3A induced cytoskeletal collapse. J Neurosci 2002; 22(2) :471-477. 55. Turner LJ, NichoUs S, Hall A. The activity of the plexin-Al receptor is regulated by rac. J Biol Chem 2004; 279(32):33199-33205.
Among the PI3Ks, the class I group of PI3K is key in the generation of the PIP3 signaling intermediary, leading to activation of Akt/PKB and other downstream effectors. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers consisting of a regulatory subunit (collectively called *p85s') whose SH2 domain mediates recruitment of the pllO catalytic subunit to membrane-bound receptors, adaptor proteins and Ras. ' ^ Stimulation of the PI3Ks involves binding of p85 to the phosphorylated YXXM motif during growth factor receptor activation.
Phosphorylation is recognised as a fundamental process involved in the regulation of intracellular signaling in response to extracellular signals, and is mediated by a host of intracellidar serine/threonine, tyrosine and lipid kinases. The requirement of kinases in Semaphorin signaling extends from the surface of the cell, at the receptor level, to specific intracellular pathways. In this chapter we will focus on the specific, yet divergent, cellular processes that are achieved through modulation of the enzymatic activity of key intracellular kinase pathways (Fig.