By Osten Dahl
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Extra info for Tense and Aspect Systems
The number of cases where the language-specific category was predicted to occur and actually did occur, and N is the total number of occurrences of that category. It turned out that the two similarity measures - C and H R - gave almost identical rankings of language-specific categories relative to the hypothesized distributions. H R also has its weaknesses - it is hard to compare the H R values for two pairs of categories (whether we are comparing two language-specific categories or one language-specific and one hypothesized cross-linguistic category) which are very different in size.
In speaking of a repeated total event 'one can use a pf. verb, thus stressing each individual total event, or use an ipf. verb, which means that the stativeness of unlimited repetition takes precedence'. The first solution is normally chosen in Russian, Polish, and Bulgarian, whereas the second is preferred (even if it is not always the only possible alternative) in Czech, Slovak, Sorbian (a West Slavic language spoken on the territory of the German Democratic Republic) and Slovene. In Serbo-Croatian, both aspects are possible.
G. g. the object marking systems of Fenno-Ugric languages) and voice may involve T M A notions; yet, one would not like to draw in case and voice in general into the investigation. The problem here is that in order to be able to discard a category as being irrelevant to the TMA system, we would have to make a thorough investigation of its semantics; to have to do that for all categories is precisely what we are trying to avoid, however. In addition, I formulated the following two conditions: 52 T h e concept of 'major TMA category' The coding of the T M A categories found in the questionnaires resulted in a rather large set of 'labeis' - around one thousand, or approximately 15 per language in the sample.