Ciba Foundation Symposium - The Frozen Cell by G.E.W., Wolstenholme

By G.E.W., Wolstenholme

Chapter 1 Chairman's beginning comments (pages 1–3): Peter Mazur
Chapter 2 Polyhedral Clathrate Hydrates (pages 5–26): Irving M. Klotz
Chapter three actual adjustments taking place in Frozen strategies in the course of Rewarming and Melting (pages 27–50): B. J. Luyet
Chapter four The Exceeding of a minimal Tolerable mobile quantity in Hypertonic Suspension as a reason behind Freezing harm (pages 51–67): Harold T. Meryman
Chapter five Interactions of Cooling fee, Warming fee and protecting Additive at the Survival of Frozen Mammalian Cells (pages 69–88): Peter Mazur, Stanley P. Leibo, John Farrant, E. H. Y. Chu, M. G. Hanna and L. H. Smith
Chapter 6 demise of Frozen Yeast during gradual warming (pages 89–96): A. P. Mackenzie
Chapter 7 attainable Relationships among the actual houses of strategies and phone harm in the course of Freezing (pages 97–129): J. Farrant and A. E. Woolgar
Chapter eight Mechanism of Haemolysis of Erythrocytes by means of Freezing, with distinct connection with Freezing at Near?Zero Temperatures (pages 131–147): Tokio Nei
Chapter nine The function of Membrane Proteins in Freezing damage and Resistance (pages 149–174): J. Levitt and John Dear
Chapter 10 Proteins able to preserving Chloroplast Membranes opposed to Freezing (pages 175–188): U. Heber
Chapter eleven The low Temperature Denaturation of Chymotrypsinogen in Aqueous resolution and in Frozen Aqueous answer (pages 189–212): John F. Brandts, Joan Fu and John H. Nordin
Chapter 12 The position of Peptides in combating Freeze?Thaw damage (pages 213–233): J. D. Davies
Chapter thirteen Mechanisms of Freezing harm in Bacteriophage T4 (pages 235–250): Stanley P. Leibo and Peter Mazur
Chapter 14 The influence of Freezing and Rewarming on tom cat mind Tissue: An Electron Microscope examine (pages 251–269): H. A. D. Walder
Chapter 15 Ultrastructural and useful adjustments in tender Muscle linked to Freezing and Thawing (pages 271–293): C. A. Walter

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9. (For more details about recrystallization, as observed in physical systems, see my review. ) Me king The physical changes occurring when a frozen solution is being melted under equilibrium conditions have been extensively studied and are fairly well known. As was said above, the relationship between temperature and concentration is then expresscd in the melting curves of the classical phase diagrams. But some of our observations on recrystallization and on the transitions detectable by differential thermal analysis indicate that often a system becomes unstable during rewarming at temperatures far below the lowest point in the melting curve of the phase diagram (the eutectic point).

On account of the slow diffusion at low temperatures, the concentration gradients may be extremely slow in reaching equilibrium. When the ice phase is in the form of compact crystals, the frozen solution consists of a suspension of such crystals in a non-crystalline medium. 34 B . J . LUYET T o summarize: the frozen solutions, in which we are to study the physical changes produced by rewarming and thawing, consist of a framework of ice, often of a very fine structural design, interpenetrating a non-frozen phase of considerable total volume, often finely divided and therefore scparated from the ice by eiiormously large contact areas; steep concentration gradients may be maintained for long periods of time in the narrow channels of non-frozen material.

The arrows at G and IM point to the beginning of, respectively, the glass transformation and niclting ; the arrow at AM points to a change of unknown nature designated as ante-melting. MP indicates the melting point. ) 40 B . J. LUYET solutes), at concentrations extending from about 25 to 60 per cent, is rewarmed slowly after having been cooled rapidly. The preparation, which was transparent at low temperatures, becomes suddenly opaque when its temperature reaches a certain value-the “recrystallization cc temperature”.

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