By S.P. Novikov
This up to date survey of the total box of topology is the flagship of the topology subseries of the Encyclopaedia. The booklet supplies an summary of varied subfields, starting with the weather and continuing correct as much as the current frontiers of analysis.
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Extra info for Topology I: General Survey (Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences)
How would you recognize a reaction that has zero-order kinetics? 1. ELEMENTAL, CHEMICAL, AND PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL Soils are complex materials, reflecting the variability of the parent rock material and Jrganic residues from which they form. Nevertheless, their elemental composition, ;Jarticle size, and mineralogy can be related more or less systematically to the nature Jf the parent material and the degree to which this material has been altered by 'o\eathering (a subject that will be expanded on in Chapter 6 of this book).
Isostructural with goethite 'Y-FeOOH Lepidocrocite ccp Uncommon except in wet soils. Color similar to goethite. 'Y-AlOOH Boehmite ccp Uncommon in soils. Isostructural with lepidocrocite. Fe203·nH20 Ferrihydrite Disordered Common in temperate-region soils. Reddishbrown to yellow-brown. a-Fe20 Hematite hcp Common in soils of hot climates, both humid and dry. Reddish-brown color. 'Y-Al(OHh Gibbsite hcp(open packed) Common in humid tropics. Not common in cool temperate-region soils. 'Y-F e20 3 Maghemite ccp Widespread but minor.
The structure of chlorite, showing a single (~14-A c-axis dimension). 2: 1: 1 layer of the structure spacings under conditions found in soil, they are distinguished by the fact the chlorite spacing is very heat stable while vermiculite dehydrates and collapses on heating. Consequently, chlorites are identified in soils by the existence of stable 14-A x-ray diffraction peaks, but this test does not identify the nature of the 2: 1 layer or the hydroxide interlayer. In many cases, particularly in acid soils, the hydroxide interlayer is likely to be gibbsitelike (composed largely of AI(OH)3) rather than brucitelike.