By Willi H. Hager
The moment, enlarged version of this confirmed reference integrates many new insights into wastewater hydraulics. This paintings serves as a reference for researchers but in addition is a foundation for training engineers. it may be used as a textual content booklet for graduate scholars, even though it has the features of a reference publication. It addresses regularly the sewer hydraulician but additionally normal hydraulic engineers who've to take on many an issue in way of life, and who won't continuously locate a suitable answer. each one bankruptcy is brought with a precis to stipulate the contents. to demonstrate program of the idea, examples are awarded to give an explanation for the computational approaches. additional, to narrate current wisdom to the historical past of hydraulics, a few key dates on noteworthy hydraulicians are quoted. A old notice at the improvement of wastewater hydraulics can be extra. References are given on the finish of every bankruptcy, and they're frequently necessary beginning issues for extra interpreting. every one notation is outlined whilst brought, and indexed alphabetically on the finish of every bankruptcy.
This new version contains specifically sideweirs with throttling pipes, drop shafts with an account at the two-phase circulation gains, in addition to conduit choking because of direct or undular hydraulic jumps.
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Extra resources for Wastewater Hydraulics: Theory and Practice
For practical purposes this abundance of data is not always available, and reference to guidance values of ξ is made. For further information, one should consult the standard works of Richter (1971), Miller (1971, 1978), Idel’cik (1979, 1986), Ward-Smith (1980), and Blevins (1984). The abundance of data material contained in these sources cannot be discussed here. 32 2 Losses in Flow In the following, a selection of values for the loss coefficient ξ is presented, refering to standard cases and valid, basically, only for pressurized flow.
However, his first formula, Eq. 20), although set rather hastily, is still today recognized as the Manning’s formula. Albert Strickler, a Swiss engineer, analyzed in 1923 a large number of actual measurements in pressurized pipe and natural stream flows and recommended Eq. 20). The merit of his development lies undoubtedly in introducing a formula of the type of Eq. 19). 51 obtained from the preceding consideration. In the following, Eq. 20) is designated as the formula of Manning and Strickler.
These are not pursued further here. With regard to expansion losses, the abrupt 90◦ -diffusor has special significance because the loss coefficient may be determined from elementary hydraulic considerations. Assuming that the pressure acting on the expansion face is the same Fig. 8 Conduit expansion (a) definition plot and flow structure, (b) loss coefficient Φe = H12 /(V12 /2g) as function of the expansion angle δ. (c) Expanding jet from an outlet into an aeration basin 36 2 Losses in Flow as the inlet pressure p1 and neglecting the wall resistance, the application of the momentum principle yields the Borda-Carnot expression ξe 90 ◦ = H12 /(V12 /2g) = [1 − (F1 /F2 )]2 .